The risk management framework steps are detailed in NIST SP 800-37, Guide for Applying the Risk Management Framework to Federal Information Systems.
The DoD has recently adopted the Risk Management Framework steps (called the DIARMF process). There are 6 step: Categorize, Select, Implement, Assess, Authorize and Continuous Monitor.
risk management framework – Step 1. Categorize
The first risk management framework step is categorization. This step consists of classifying the importance of the information system. This is done by the system owner with FIPS 199 and NIST 800-60.
Categorization is based on how much negative impact the organization will receive if the information system lost is confidentiality, integrity or availability.
risk management framework – Step 2. Select
With FIPS 200 and NIST SP 800-53, the organization responsible for the systems security will select the security controls required to limit the risk to their organization. The selection of the controls is based on the categorization of your system. A system security plan is created as a guide to what will be installed and/or configured on the system.
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risk management framework – Step 3. Implement
Using the System Security Plan, the organization responsible for the categorized system can begin risk management framework step 3. This step is implementation which is installation and configuration of security patches, hotfixes and security devices where necessary. Guidance for actual implantation has to come from technical manuals, system administrators, system engineers and others technically competent enough to do the work.
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risk management framework – Step 4. Assess
The organization has to make sure that the security controls are implemented properly. This is done in risk management step 4, assess. Using NIST SP 800-53A, Guide for Assessing the Security Controls in Federal Information Systems and Organizations is used to determine which controls have been fully implemented to limit the risks to the organization.
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risk management framework – Step 5. Authorize
Even after implementation and assessment of the security controls that limits the over all risk to the organization, there is some remaining (residual) risk. The organization must have someone who has enough authority of over the system to accept the residual risk. This person is known as the Authorizing Official.
In risk management framework step 5, an Authorizing Official makes a formal, written acceptance of the risks. The AO makes a decision on whether or not to accept the risk based on the authorization package. The authorization package consists of the system security plan, plan of action and milestone, security/risk assessment report and any other supporting documents.
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risk management framework – Step 6. Continuous Monitoring
After acceptance of risk by the organization, they must develop a program that monitors the ongoing changes to the systems security posture. They take a proactive approach to watching for advanced persistent threats, configuration changes and new vulnerabilities. Risk management framework step 6 handles all of this.
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